king middle ages

Daily Life and Duties of a Medieval King

For centuries, tales of medieval kings have pervaded our literature, cinema, and imagination, often painted as grandiose figures leading glorious battles, enjoying lavish feasts, and ruling with an iron fist. While these portrayals capture some elements of the truth, the real life and duties of a medieval king were much more complex and intricate. This article invites you to step back in time and explore the daily life, challenges, and responsibilities that came with being a medieval king. From maintaining the kingdom’s order and managing finances, to the subtle art of diplomacy, being a king in the Middle Ages was not for the faint of heart. Prepare to delve into an era of knighthood, faith, power struggles, and royal duties that shaped the course of history.

Roles and Responsibilities of a Medieval King

Being a medieval king was a role steeped in responsibility and duty. A king was not merely a figurehead but the ultimate authority in his realm, charged with maintaining stability, justice, and prosperity. His decisions impacted the lives of his subjects, from the highest-ranking nobles to the lowest peasants. The roles and responsibilities of a medieval king were many and varied, encompassing governance, war, diplomacy, religion, and more.

Maintaining the Kingdom’s Order

One of the primary duties of a medieval king was maintaining the kingdom’s order. This responsibility was far-reaching and multifaceted, encompassing law, justice, and peace within the kingdom. A king was responsible for establishing laws and ensuring they were enforced consistently. These laws would cover a wide range of matters from land ownership and taxation, to crimes and their punishments.

Judicial duties were also a significant part of a king’s role. While minor disputes might be handled by local courts, the king would often serve as the ultimate judge in major cases or disputes between nobles.

On a larger scale, the king was responsible for protecting the kingdom from internal strife, such as rebellions or uprisings. This could involve both force, to suppress rebellious elements, and diplomacy, to negotiate and mediate disputes within the kingdom. Maintaining the kingdom’s order was crucial to ensure a stable and functioning society.

International Diplomacy

Beyond the borders of his own kingdom, a medieval king also engaged in international diplomacy. This responsibility entailed navigating complex relationships with neighboring kingdoms, the Church, and sometimes even far-off empires.

A king had to maintain a careful balance of alliances to secure his kingdom’s position. This often involved negotiations, treaties, and marriages among nobility to strengthen bonds. For example, it was not uncommon for a king to marry his daughter to a foreign prince to secure an alliance.

At times, diplomacy could also take a more aggressive form. If negotiations failed or interests clashed, a king might wage war against other kingdoms. These decisions were critical and could significantly shift the balance of power in the region.

Moreover, with the significant influence of the Church in the Middle Ages, a king was also expected to maintain good relations with the Pope and the wider Catholic Church. This was another crucial aspect of a medieval king’s diplomatic duties. Failure to do so could lead to excommunication or even a sanctioned invasion by other Christian kingdoms.

In conclusion, the roles and responsibilities of a medieval king extended far beyond the throne. A king was a lawmaker, judge, warrior, diplomat, and a religious figure, all in one. The interconnected web of these duties paints a picture of a role that was demanding and intricate, requiring a delicate balance of strength, wisdom, and diplomacy.

Managing Finances

While the image of a medieval king often evokes grand castles, bountiful feasts, and splendid clothing, the reality behind these displays of wealth was a complex system of financial management. Managing the kingdom’s finances was one of the critical duties of a medieval king, and it was far more complicated than simply collecting taxes and funding festivities.


Taxation was a crucial source of income for the kingdom. It was typically levied on the king’s subjects – the peasants, the nobility, and sometimes even the clergy. A king would usually have officials appointed for the purpose of collecting these taxes. These officials were often chosen from the king’s trusted advisors and their duty was to ensure that the king received his due.

There were several forms of taxes in the Middle Ages. Some were fixed, like the ‘geld’ in Anglo-Saxon England, a form of land tax. Others were occasional, imposed to raise funds for specific purposes, such as financing a war or a royal wedding. There were also custom duties imposed on goods imported and exported from the kingdom.

Managing the Royal Treasury

A king’s responsibilities did not end at collecting taxes. He was also responsible for managing the royal treasury. This included the careful expenditure of the collected wealth to meet the kingdom’s various needs. A king would have to ensure that funds were available for different purposes like maintaining the royal household, paying his officials and soldiers, maintaining the kingdom’s infrastructure, and preparing for war if needed.

The king’s financial advisors would provide counsel on these matters, but the final decision often rested with the king himself. It was a delicate balancing act – spending too little could lead to problems such as poorly maintained defenses or disgruntled officials, while spending too much could deplete the treasury and lead to financial crisis.

Patronage and Gifts 

An additional financial responsibility of a medieval king was the role of a patron. Kings often bestowed lands, titles, and gifts upon their loyal subjects, allies, or servants as rewards for their services. This practice served not only to maintain loyalty but also to establish and reinforce social hierarchies.

Funding Wars

One of the most significant financial burdens on a king’s treasury was war. War was expensive, requiring funds to pay and provision soldiers, build and maintain fortifications, and procure weapons and equipment. A king had to plan meticulously to finance these endeavors without depleting his treasury. Sometimes, he had to introduce additional taxes or seek financial aid from allies to fund these campaigns.

In conclusion, managing finances was a vital and complex aspect of a medieval king’s duties. It required careful planning, astute decision-making, and a fine balance between income and expenditure. The prosperity of the kingdom often rested on how well a king could manage his treasury. So next time you imagine a king in a grand castle, remember that behind that image is a challenging task of financial management that helped sustain the medieval monarchy.

The Daily Life of a Medieval King

Being a medieval king was not just about sitting on a throne and wearing a crown. Instead, it was an active role that required physical, mental, and strategic prowess. The king’s daily life was a blend of administrative duties, ceremonial tasks, political maneuvering, warfare planning, and social activities, all while managing personal relationships and obligations.

Waking Hours and Morning Duties

A typical day in the life of a medieval king would begin with the sun. Upon waking, he would attend a private mass conducted by his chaplain, as religion played an integral part in the daily life of all medieval individuals, especially the king.

After attending mass, the king would usually meet with his personal advisors, often during a morning meal. This group, known as the king’s council, would include his chancellor, treasurer, and potentially his steward or marshal, who would update the king on domestic and international matters. This was also the time when the king would make key decisions regarding the kingdom, such as settling disputes, making laws, issuing decrees, managing finances, or planning military campaigns.

Following the morning meeting, the king would hold court. This could involve a public audience where he would receive foreign diplomats, listen to petitions from his subjects, or render justice in significant legal cases.

Evening Rituals

The evening was a time for relaxation and recreation, but it also had its own rituals. After a day of hard work, the king would attend Vespers, the evening prayer service. This would be followed by supper, which was often a grand affair. Unlike the relatively small and intimate morning meal, supper would be an opportunity to showcase the king’s wealth and hospitality. Nobles, courtiers, and distinguished guests would join, turning the meal into a social event.

After supper, the king might engage in various forms of entertainment such as listening to music, watching jesters or minstrels, or participating in a game of chess. He could also decide to read or be read to. The king’s evenings often included discussions on philosophy, religion, and strategy, as education was an important aspect of a king’s role.

The king’s day would end with Compline, the final church service of the day, before retiring to his bedchamber. Despite the grandeur and prestige associated with kingship, being a medieval king required constant attention and a hands-on approach. It was not a job that ended at a particular time of the day, and it carried immense responsibility and challenges.

In summary, the life of a medieval king was a blend of religious devotion, political duty, judicial responsibility, and social obligation. It was a position that demanded a lot from the individual, who was expected to be a paragon of virtue, a savvy politician, a fair judge, and a fearless leader, all in one.

Challenges Faced by a Medieval King

Being a medieval king was far from an easy task. It was a position fraught with innumerable challenges, from internal political struggles to external military threats, from managing the economy to dealing with pandemics. Let’s explore a few of these challenges in detail.

Maintaining Authority: One of the primary challenges faced by a medieval king was maintaining his authority. A king’s power was constantly challenged, either by ambitious nobles within his kingdom, rival kingdoms, or even the Church. Kings had to balance the demands and ambitions of their barons with the need to maintain their own control.

War and Conflict: Medieval Europe was a hotbed of warfare and conflict. Kings were expected to lead their troops into battle, often putting their lives at risk. They had to strategically plan warfare, forming alliances and assessing the best time to attack or retreat.

Financial Management: Managing the kingdom’s finances was another significant challenge. Kings had to ensure that taxes were collected, the kingdom’s expenses were managed, and the economy was stable. This involved managing a complex network of fiefdoms, taxes, and trade.

Pandemics and Diseases: The threat of pandemics and diseases was always present in medieval times. The most notable was the Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death, which killed millions of people in Europe. Kings had to manage these crises as best they could, often with limited resources and understanding of disease.

Balancing Church and State: Religion played a crucial role in the Middle Ages. Kings had to navigate their relationship with the Church carefully. They had to balance the Church’s power and influence with their own, and often this was a delicate and challenging dance.

The Life of King Richard the Lionheart

King Richard I of England, better known as Richard the Lionheart, is an excellent example of a medieval king who faced numerous challenges during his reign from 1189 to 1199.

Richard was known for his courage and prowess in battle, hence his nickname ‘the Lionheart’. However, his reign was marked by constant warfare. He spent most of his kingship on the Third Crusade, trying to recapture the Holy Land from Saladin. This not only kept him away from England for extended periods, creating a power vacuum at home, but also drained the kingdom’s resources significantly.

Richard had to raise funds for his Crusades, and he did this by imposing heavy taxes on his subjects, selling off royal lands, and even offering the position of Sheriff to the highest bidder. His fiscal policies, although necessary from his perspective, created discontent among his subjects and strained the economy.

Despite his military successes, Richard’s absence from England caused internal strife. His brother John and many of his barons rebelled against him, leading to further political instability.

Finally, Richard had a fraught relationship with the Church. His lifestyle and his decision to delay his marriage to Berengaria of Navarre invited criticism from the clergy, although he maintained a good relationship with the Papacy.

Richard the Lionheart’s life is a testament to the challenges faced by medieval kings. It illustrates that kingship in the Middle Ages was not just about power and glory, but also about facing continuous struggles and making difficult decisions for the welfare of the kingdom.


Being a medieval king was far from a simple affair of wearing a crown and wielding power. It was a role imbued with immense responsibilities and challenges. From the moment a king woke up until he retired for the night, his day was filled with administrative tasks, diplomatic endeavors, strategic warfare planning, and religious obligations. The king was not only the head of the kingdom but also a military leader, a judge, a lawmaker, and a spiritual figurehead.

The challenges faced by these kings were manifold, ranging from maintaining authority and managing finances to handling warfare and navigating the delicate relationship with the Church. The case of King Richard the Lionheart is an illustrative example, highlighting the continuous struggles and difficult decisions a king had to undertake.

Nevertheless, these kings left a significant impact on history. They shaped the cultures, economies, and boundaries of their respective nations, their actions influencing events and narratives that are studied and remembered even today. Through their trials and tribulations, victories and defeats, the medieval kings provide a fascinating glimpse into a time when leadership was a blend of bravery, wisdom, faith, and strategy.

Despite the hardships, the position of a king was a symbol of supreme authority and respect, a role that continues to captivate our imagination. As we delve deeper into the annals of history, we get a richer perspective on these complex figures, moving beyond the archetype of a king to understand the man behind the crown. Their legacies, encapsulated in historical records, architecture, and folklore, continue to be a testament to their era and their rule. And so, the life of a medieval king remains an enduring topic of fascination, exploration, and understanding.