byzantine cities

Top 10 Must-Visit Byzantine Cities in History

The Byzantine Empire was a powerhouse of culture, art, and architecture, and its cities remain one of the richest sources of history and heritage. These cities are a testament to the Byzantine era’s grandeur and are must-visit destinations for anyone interested in history, art, and culture.

In this article, we explore the top 10 Byzantine cities that you should consider visiting. From the grandeur of Constantinople to the atmospheric beauty of Monemvasia, each of these cities has its unique character and an unmissable history.

Key Takeaways:

  • Byzantine cities are a rich source of history and culture
  • The top 10 Byzantine cities offer a unique glimpse into the grandeur of the Byzantine era
  • Visiting these cities is a must-do for anyone interested in history, art, and architecture

1. Constantinople

Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, is a must-visit cultural hub steeped in history. Its iconic landmarks, cultural significance, and role as a center of trade and influence during the Byzantine era make it a top destination for history enthusiasts.

The city’s grandeur is reflected in its magnificent architecture, including the Hagia Sophia, the Hippodrome, and the Basilica Cistern, all of which showcase the unique blend of Christian and Islamic influences. Moreover, the city was a melting pot of different cultures, and its streets were teeming with merchants, traders, and visitors from all over the world, making it a vibrant and bustling hub of activity.

Today, visitors can explore the historic sites of Constantinople and experience the cultural richness of the city. From the bustling Grand Bazaar to the tranquil gardens of the Topkapi Palace, there is something for everyone in this vibrant city.

2. Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki, a city in northeastern Greece, boasts a rich Byzantine history that spans over a millennium. The city is home to an array of impressive Byzantine architecture, monuments, and cultural heritage, earning it a spot on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list.

One of the most notable landmarks is the Church of Saint Demetrius, a 4th-century Byzantine church that was rebuilt in the 7th century after an earthquake. The church features exquisite mosaics and frescoes that depict various scenes from the life of St. Demetrius. Another impressive church is the Church of the Holy Apostles, an 14th-century Byzantine church that is now a museum.

Thessaloniki also boasts impressive fortifications, including the city walls and the Trigonion Tower, which was built during the 15th century to defend the city against Ottoman attacks.

The city has a rich cultural heritage as well, with a number of museums that showcase the Byzantine history of Thessaloniki. The Museum of Byzantine Culture is a must-visit for anyone interested in the Byzantine era, with an extensive collection of art and artifacts.

3. Ravenna

When it comes to Byzantine mosaics, the Italian city of Ravenna is a true gem. Once an important stronghold of the Byzantine EmpireRavenna is now renowned for its breathtaking Byzantine art and architecture.

The city’s churches, baptisteries, and mausoleums boast some of the most intricate and well-preserved Byzantine mosaics in the world. Another notable attraction is the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, with its stunning blue star-filled ceiling.

Ravenna’s artistry and cultural significance are a testament to the lasting influence of the Byzantine Empire.

Besides its art and history, Ravenna is a charming Italian city with winding streets and delicious cuisine. Visitors can explore the city’s museums, stroll through its many public parks, or simply soak up the bustling Italian atmosphere.

4. Athens

As one of the oldest cities in the world, Athens has a rich and fascinating history that spans centuries. While it may be known for its iconic landmarks such as the Parthenon and the Acropolis, Athens also played a crucial role in the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine legacy of Athens can still be seen today in the preservation of its Byzantine monuments and their integration into the vibrant cityscape. The Church of the Holy Apostles is a notable example, featuring impressive Byzantine mosaics and highlighting the artistic and cultural heritage of the Byzantine era.

Other noteworthy Byzantine monuments in Athens include the Church of Kapnikarea and the Monastery of Daphni, both of which feature stunning Byzantine architecture and intricate details. Visitors to Athens can also explore the Byzantine and Christian Museum, which houses a large collection of Byzantine art and artifacts.

By immersing yourself in the Byzantine legacy of Athens, you can gain a deeper appreciation for the city’s ancient and enduring cultural heritage.

5. Nicaea

Nicaea holds a significant place in Byzantine history as it served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire during two periods, and was an important religious center. The city was a crucial battleground during the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, which defined the Christian doctrine and led to the creation of the Nicene Creed.

One of the most notable landmarks in Nicaea is the Hagia Sophia church, built during the Byzantine era and later converted into a mosque. It boasts impressive frescoes and mosaics that tell stories of the city’s rich history.

Other notable sites include the ancient walls that surround the city, the Stadium, and the Roman aqueduct. Visitors can also explore the Iznik Tile Works Museum, which showcases the city’s exquisite ceramic artistry.

6. Mystras

Mystras is a medieval Byzantine city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, located in the Peloponnese region of Greece. This once-thriving city showcases incredible Byzantine architecture and is now a mesmerizing archaeological site.

As you wander through the ruins, you’ll discover palaces, churches, and monasteries that reveal stories of Mystras’ past. Among the most impressive buildings are the Palace of the Despots and the Church of Saint Demetrios, which features stunning frescoes.

Mystras’ history and architecture make it an ideal destination for history enthusiasts and photography enthusiasts alike. Visiting this beautiful site will give you a glimpse into the past and help you appreciate the rich Byzantine culture that once thrived here.

7. Edirne

Edirne, located in the northwestern region of Turkey, was the capital of the Ottoman Empire before Istanbul. This city holds historical remnants of the Byzantine Empire, which served as an inspiration for the Ottoman era’s architecture.

Edirne is home to many impressive structures, including the Selimiye Mosque, which was built in the 16th century by the famous architect Mimar Sinan. Visitors can also explore the Eski Camii (Old Mosque), built in the 14th century during the Byzantine era, which displays a unique blend of Ottoman and Byzantine architectural styles.

One fascinating site to visit in Edirne is the ancient fortress, also known as the Edirne Acropolis. The fortress was built during the Byzantine Empire and was later restored by the Ottomans. It is located on a hill overlooking the city and provides stunning views of the surrounding landscape.

Edirne’s history is evident in the city’s rich cultural heritage, which can be experienced through its museums, traditional bazaars, and local cuisine. For visitors interested in exploring the city’s Byzantine past and the evolution of the Ottoman Empire’s architecture, Edirne is not to be missed.

8. Sofia

Sofia, the Bulgarian capital, boasts some of the most impressive examples of Byzantine architecture in Europe. The city is home to numerous Byzantine churches and monuments, which showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Byzantine Empire.

One of the most notable examples of Byzantine architecture in Sofia is the Church of St. George. Considered one of the oldest buildings in Sofia, the church dates back to the 4th century and features stunning murals and frescoes that depict scenes from the life of Jesus.

Another impressive Byzantine monument in Sofia is the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. Built in the late 19th century, the cathedral is one of the largest Eastern Orthodox churches in the world and features a magnificent interior adorned with golden domes and elaborate mosaics.

Visitors to Sofia can also explore the Museum of Sofia, which houses a vast collection of Byzantine artifacts and artworks. The museum offers a fascinating insight into the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire and its influence in Bulgaria.

In addition to its Byzantine heritage, Sofia is a vibrant and dynamic city that offers a wealth of attractions for visitors. From its bustling markets and lively nightlife to its picturesque parks and gardens, Sofia is a city that is sure to captivate and enchant all who visit.

9. Ohrid

Ohrid is a hidden gem in the Balkans, known for its stunning Byzantine churches and picturesque views of Lake Ohrid. This Macedonian city boasts a rich cultural heritage, with numerous notable landmarks that showcase the region’s Byzantine past.

The city’s most famous attraction is the Church of St. John at Kaneo, a stunning example of Byzantine architecture perched on a cliff overlooking the lake. Other must-visit churches include the Church of St. Clement and the Church of St. Sophia, both of which feature beautiful frescoes and intricate mosaics.

Beyond the city’s religious sites, visitors can stroll through the charming Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that offers a glimpse into Ohrid’s medieval past. The town’s narrow streets and traditional houses add to its undeniable charm, while its many restaurants and cafes serve up delicious local cuisine.

If you’re looking for natural beauty, Lake Ohrid is an ideal destination for swimming, boating, or simply relaxing on its shores. With its crystal-clear water and stunning mountain backdrop, it’s easy to see why this lake has been dubbed the “Macedonian pearl.”

10. Monemvasia

Perched on a rock in the PeloponneseMonemvasia is a breathtaking fortified Byzantine town that will transport you back in time. Its unique architecture and rich history make it a must-visit destination for history buffs and architecture enthusiasts alike.

The town is separated into two sections, the lower town and the upper town. The lower town is a bustling modern village, while the upper town is a wonderfully preserved medieval town, filled with narrow cobblestone streets, churches, and fortifications.

Explore the rich history of Monemvasia by wandering through its intricate network of alleys and staircases, admiring the stunning views along the way. The town’s cobblestone streets are lined with historic buildings, including the imposing fortress that guards the entrance to the town, and numerous Byzantine churches with stunning frescoes and mosaics.

Monemvasia’s charm lies in its atmosphere, with its winding streets and hidden corners, it’s easy to get lost in the town’s medieval maze. Take your time to explore the town’s secrets and imagine what life would have been like for the inhabitants of this fortified Byzantine town.


The Byzantine Empire was a beacon of culture and power for over a millennium, leaving behind a legacy that still fascinates people today. Visiting these top 10 must-visit Byzantine cities is a chance to step back in time and immerse yourself in the wonders of this incredible era. The historical significance of these cities is unparalleled, and their cultural heritage is something to be treasured.

From the grandeur of Constantinople to the atmospheric beauty of Monemvasia, each city has its own unique charm and history to discover. Whether you’re interested in Byzantine architecture, art, or history, these cities offer a glimpse into a world that still captivates us today.

So, what are you waiting for? Pack your bags and get ready to embark on a journey through history. Explore the wonders of the Byzantine era and immerse yourself in the cultural heritage of these must-visit Byzantine cities.


Q: What are Byzantine cities?

A: Byzantine cities refer to the urban settlements that existed during the Byzantine Empire, which was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Q: Why should I visit Byzantine cities?

A: Visiting Byzantine cities allows you to immerse yourself in the rich history and cultural heritage of the Byzantine Empire. These cities are filled with impressive architecture, fascinating stories, and a unique sense of time and place.

Q: Which are the must-visit Byzantine cities?

A: The top 10 must-visit Byzantine cities in history are Constantinople, Thessaloniki, Ravenna, Athens, Nicaea, Mystras, Edirne, Sofia, Ohrid, and Monemvasia. Each city offers its own unique charm and historical significance.

Q: What are some famous landmarks in Byzantine cities?

A: Famous landmarks in Byzantine cities include the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, the Rotunda and the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki, the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, the Byzantine and Christian Museum in Athens, the Church of Hagia Sophia in Nicaea, the Fortress of Mystras, the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, the Church of St. Sophia in Ohrid, and the Church of Agia Sofia in Monemvasia.

Q: Can I visit these Byzantine cities on my own?

A: Yes, you can visit these Byzantine cities on your own. Many of them have well-preserved historical sites, museums, and tourist infrastructure that make it easy for visitors to explore and learn about their Byzantine heritage.

Q: Are there any UNESCO World Heritage Sites among the Byzantine cities?

A: Yes, Thessaloniki and Mystras are both UNESCO World Heritage Sites due to their exceptional Byzantine architecture and historical significance.

Q: What is the best time to visit Byzantine cities?

A: The best time to visit Byzantine cities depends on the specific destination. However, spring and autumn generally offer pleasant weather and fewer crowds, making them ideal for exploring these historical sites.

Q: Can I see Byzantine art and artifacts in these cities?

A: Yes, many of these Byzantine cities have museums and churches that house a significant collection of Byzantine art and artifacts. These treasures provide a glimpse into the artistic and cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire.

Q: Are there guided tours available for these cities?

A: Yes, guided tours are available for many of these Byzantine cities. These tours can enhance your understanding of the history and significance of each city, providing a more immersive experience.

Q: How long should I plan to stay in each Byzantine city?

A: The duration of your stay in each Byzantine city depends on your interests and itinerary. Some cities may require a full day or more to fully explore, while others can be experienced in a shorter time. It’s recommended to allocate at least a couple of days for each city to truly appreciate their historical and cultural treasures.