What Language Did Knights Templar Speak?

What Language Did Knights Templar Speak?

One question that has intrigued historians for centuries revolves around the language employed by the enigmatic group of the Middle Ages: the Knights Templar. It prompts us to ponder the linguistic dynamics and cultural intricacies that constituted the everyday life of these knightly monks. This article explores the query: “What language did the Knights Templar speak?”

What Ethnicity Were the Knights Templar?

The Knights Templar, formally known as the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, was an order established in the early 12th century following the First Crusade. The primary mission of this order was to protect Christian pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land. As such, it attracted individuals from different parts of Europe, predominantly from the Western regions.

The majority of the Knights Templar were of Frankish or Norman descent, as a French knight, Hugues de Payens, founded the order. This means that a significant portion of the order was of French ethnic origin. However, the order grew in size and reputation over time, drawing in knights from a diverse range of Western European regions. These included England, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and the Holy Roman Empire, among others.

The Knights Templar was a melting pot of Western European ethnicities, bound together by their shared Christian faith and a common purpose to defend it. It’s important to note that their shared identity as Templars, and adherence to the order’s strict rules, often superseded their ethnic identities. Ethnic background, while varied, did not influence the order’s hierarchical structure or determine the roles and responsibilities of its members. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethnicity of the Knights Templar was as diverse as the regions of Europe from which they hailed.

Were All the Knights Templar French?

While the Knights Templar order was founded by a French knight, Hugues de Payens, in the early 12th century, it would be incorrect to state that all Knights Templars were French. The order’s origin in France and its initial French leadership meant that a significant portion of the early members were French. Furthermore, Old French was the primary language used within the order, adding to the perception of the Knights Templar as a largely French entity.

However, the order was not limited to French knights. As the Templars’ fame grew across Christendom following their founding, the order attracted nobles and warriors from all across Europe. Knights from England, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, and other Western European territories joined their ranks. Regardless of their origins, these individuals were all united under the Templar banner and lived according to its rules and commandments.

Therefore, although the Knights Templar had a strong French influence and significant French membership, the order was essentially pan-European, encompassing knights from numerous ethnic backgrounds and regions across the continent.

The Historical Context

To fully understand the linguistic intricacies of the Templars, it’s essential to grasp their historical context. The Templars, formally known as the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, were a Christian military order founded around 1119 CE. Their primary role was to protect Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land during the Crusades. The order was primarily Western European, with many members from regions such as France, England, Portugal, and other parts of Europe.

Predominant Languages in the Templar Order

Given their broad geographic roots, Templars were multilingual, speaking the languages of their respective homelands. However, due to the dominant influence of French knights in the order and their ties with the French-speaking Kingdom of Jerusalem, Old French emerged as the most common language among the Templars. This was the primary Knights Templar language in their daily dealings and official correspondence.

Influence and Adaptation of Other Languages

The Templars’ presence in the Middle East brought them into contact with a wide range of cultures, each with its unique language. Thus, it’s likely that many Templars became conversant, if not fluent, in other languages, such as Latin, Greek, Arabic, and possibly even Hebrew, to facilitate communication in their diverse environment.

Interaction with Arabic and Other Local Languages

The Templars’ long-term presence in the Holy Land necessitated a degree of linguistic integration. It’s almost certain that they picked up at least some Arabic to communicate with local populations and possibly even understand their enemy better. There are instances recorded in the historical annals where Templars served as interpreters and negotiators, indicating their proficiency in Arabic.

Did the Knights Templar Speak English?

As a medieval Christian military order founded in the 12th century, the Knights Templar comprised members from various regions of Europe. Each member brought their native language to the order, resulting in a multilingual community. While Old French was the dominant language, reflecting the order’s French founding and leadership, it was not the only language spoken.

Given that England was one of the regions from which knights joined the order, it’s reasonable to surmise that English was indeed spoken among the Templars. The English knights, who would have spoken Old English or Middle English, depending on the period, would likely have used their native language in conversation with each other.

But it’s important to note that Old French and Latin were the primary languages for official Templar business. Latin was the liturgical language of the Catholic Church and was used in religious ceremonies, while Old French was commonly used in the order’s administrative and diplomatic matters.

It’s also plausible to consider that many Templars, especially those in leadership roles, were multilingual, understanding and speaking several languages of the regions where the Templars were active. This linguistic ability would have been crucial for diplomatic and commercial interactions and coordinating military campaigns in the diverse linguistic landscapes of medieval Europe and the Near East.

Language Learning among the Templars: A Necessity of Their Multicultural Environment 

Given the multicultural environments in which the Knights Templar operated, language learning became an absolute necessity. The ability to communicate effectively across diverse linguistic and cultural barriers was a fundamental survival skill and a strategic tool in their diplomatic endeavors.

The Templars originated from various parts of Europe, bringing their native languages to the order, including Old French, Middle English, Old Spanish, and others. Yet, their mission in the Holy Land exposed them to new languages such as Arabic, Greek, and potentially Hebrew. Communicating with local populations, negotiating with regional leaders, and understanding the shifting dynamics of the Crusades would have required some degree of proficiency in these languages.

The structured and disciplined order would likely have facilitated language learning among its members. High-ranking members, in particular, would have been encouraged, if not required, to learn multiple languages to perform their diplomatic and administrative duties effectively.

In essence, language learning among the Templars was more than an academic endeavor. It was a pragmatic requirement of their multicultural and multilingual environment, critical to their survival, effectiveness, and, ultimately, their legacy in the historical landscapes of Europe and the Near East.

Debunking Myths: Did Templars Steal Egyptian Language?

One persistent myth alleges that the Knights Templar stole Egyptian language. The theory, however, lacks substantial evidence and falls into the realm of speculation rather than proven historical fact. It seems to derive from the Templars’ reputed interest in occultism and the romantic notion of them unlocking the secrets of ancient civilizations.

With its profound mystique and ancient wisdom, Egyptian civilization has always been a fertile ground for such theories. Nevertheless, no concrete evidence suggests Templars adopted or “stole” the Egyptian language. It is far more plausible to consider their linguistic skills extending to the languages immediately necessary for their operations in the Middle Ages, including Old French, Latin, and Arabic.

Templar Communication with Non-European Cultures

The Knights Templar’s diverse cultural and linguistic encounters extended beyond the borders of Europe due to their extensive presence in the Holy Land and the broader Near East during the Crusades. This necessitated the need for Templar communication with non-European cultures and hence, the learning and use of non-European languages.

Arabic was one of the main languages that the Templars likely had to learn. They were stationed in the Holy Land for nearly two centuries, so they co-existed with Arabic-speaking populations, whether Christian, Muslim, or Jewish. Basic communication in Arabic was likely a practical necessity for everyday interactions. More importantly, Arabic would have been crucial in diplomatic negotiations, intelligence gathering, and potential alliances with local powers.

Another language of significant importance is Greek. Given that the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) played a critical role during the period of the Crusades, proficiency in Greek would have facilitated interactions with Byzantine officials and the local populace in regions under Byzantine control.

Understanding and using these languages would not just have been a matter of practicality but also a strategic tool. By communicating effectively with non-European cultures, the Templars could negotiate treaties, procure supplies, gather intelligence, and gain the trust of local populations. This proficiency in non-European languages underscores the adaptability and resourcefulness of the Templars in their diverse, often challenging, operational environments.

The Role of Language in Templar Diplomacy 

Language played a crucial role in Templar diplomacy, facilitating their interactions with a diverse array of cultures and powers in medieval Europe and the Near East. As protectors of pilgrims and key players in the Crusades, the Templars regularly communicated with different religious and political entities. Therefore, understanding and employing various languages were essential.

Old French was the primary language of the Templars, reflecting the order’s origin and the dominance of French knights. Still, the order’s diplomatic dealings weren’t limited to Francophone entities. Therefore, Latin was also widely used as the universal language of the Church and educated classes. Latin allowed the Templars to interact with various European monarchs, religious figures, and nobility, who were often educated in Latin regardless of their geographic location.

Moreover, the Templars’ extended presence in the Holy Land exposed them to different local languages, such as Arabic, Greek, and possibly Hebrew. Proficiency in these languages was necessary for negotiating with local rulers, understanding regional politics, and fostering alliances. Templars acted as interpreters or diplomats in several cases, indicating their linguistic competence.

The Templars also developed a system of codes for secure internal communication. While not a “language” in the traditional sense, this coded system further reflects the strategic use of language in their operations.

In the end, the role of language in Templar diplomacy was multifaceted and significant, enabling them to negotiate, navigate, and survive in their multilingual and multicultural environment.

The Mystery of the Knights Templar Language

The Knights Templar, like any substantial and long-standing organization, developed its internal codes and symbols to maintain the secrecy of their operations. This system has often been misinterpreted as the ‘Templar language.’ While describing it as a coded system rather than a language per se is more accurate, it undoubtedly added to the enigma surrounding the Knights Templar.

Templar Codes and Symbols: Origin and Purpose

The origin of the Templar language can be traced back to their need for secrecy and security, both on the battlefield and in their banking operations. Over time, they developed a system of signs, ciphers, and coded letters to maintain confidentiality.

These coded messages could be described as a unique language of the Knights Templar, though it is fundamentally different from a natural language. It’s more akin to a military code used to protect sensitive information, which was likely limited to specific high-ranking members of the order.


In response to the question, “What language was spoken by the Knights Templar?” it is safe to conclude that the Templars were multilingual. Old French was predominant due to the order’s origins and primary alliances. Still, they adapted to their multilingual environment in the Holy Land, learning languages such as Arabic and possibly Greek and Hebrew. The notion that the Templars stole the Egyptian language is more myth than reality, fueled by the order’s association with the esoteric and mysterious.

The Templars also developed a unique system of codes and symbols for secure communication, often mistaken as a distinct Templar language. Shrouded in mystery, this code has intrigued scholars and enthusiasts alike, contributing to the enduring fascination with the Knights Templar.